A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so-called digital divide--the division of the world into the info (information) rich and the info poor. And that __1__ does exist today. My wife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago. What was less __2__ then, however, were the new, positive __3__ that work against the digital divide. __4__,there are reasons to be __5__. There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more __6__, it is in the interest of business to universalize access-after all, the more people online, the more potential __7__ there are. More and more __8__, afraid their countries will be left __9__, want to spread Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be __10__ together. As a result, I now believe the digital divide will __11__ rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for __12__ world poverty that we’ve ever had. Of course, the use of the Internet isn’t the only way to __13__ poverty. And the Internet is not the only tool we have. But it has __14__ potential. To __15__ advantage of this tool, some poor countries will have to get over their outdated anti-colonial prejudices __16__ respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is a/an __17__ of their sovereignty might well study the history of __18__ (the basic structural foundations of a society) in the United States. When the United States built its industrial infrastructure, it didn’t’t have the capital to do so. And that is __19__ America’s Second Wave infrastructure-__20__ roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on-were built with foreign investment.
1. A) divide B) information C) world D) lecture
2. A) obscure B) visible C) invisible D) indistinct
3. A) forces B) obstacles C) events D) surprises
4. A) Seriously B) Entirely C) Actually D) Continuously
5. A) negative B) optimistic C) pleasant D) disappointed
6. A) developed B) centralized C) realized D) commercialized
7. A) users B) producers C) customers D) citizens
8. A) enterprises B) governments C) officials D) customers
9. A) away B) for C) aside D) behind
10. A) netted B) worked C) put D) organized
11. A) decrease B) narrow C) neglect D) low
12. A) containing B) preventing C) keeping D) combating
13. A) win B) detail C) defeat D) fear
14. A) enormous B) countless C) numerical D) big
15. A) bring B) keep C) hold D) take
16. A) at B) with C) of D) for
17. A) offence B) investment C) invasion D) insult
18. A) construction B) facility C) infrastructure D) institution
19. A) why B) where C) when D) how
20. A) concerning B) concluding C) according D) including
Part Two Reading Comprehension
The idea of building New Towns to absorb growth is frequently considered a cure-all for urban problems. It is wrongly assumed that if new residents can he diverted from existing centers, the present urban situation at least will get no worse. It is further and equally wrongly assumed that since European New Towns have been financially and socially successful; we can expect the same sorts of results in the United States.
Present planning, thinking, and legislation will not produce the kinds of New Town that have been successful abroad. It will multiply suburbs or encourage developments in areas where land is cheap and construction profitable rather than where New Towns are genuinely needed.
Such ill-considered projects not only will fail to relieve pressures on existing cities but will, in fact, tend to weaken those cities further by drawing away high-income citizens and increasing the concentration of low-income groups that are unable to provide tax income. The remaining taxpayers, accordingly, will face increasing burdens, and industry and commerce will seek escape. Unfortunately, this mechanism is already at work in some metropolitan areas.
The promoters of New Towns so far in the United States have been developers, builders, and financial institutions. The main interest of these promoters is economic gain. Furthermore, federal regulations designed to promote the New Town idea do not consider social needs as the European New Town plans do. In fact, our regulations specify virtually all the ingredients of the typical suburban community, with a bit of political rhetoric (修辞) thrown in.
A workable American New Town formula should be established as firmly here as the national formula was in Britain. All possible social and governmental innovations as well as financial factors should be thoroughly considered and accommodated (容纳 ) in this policy. Its objectives should be clearly stated, and both incentives and penalties should be provided to ensure that the objectives are pursued. If such a policy is developed, then the New Town approach can play an important role in alleviating America' urban problems.
21. The writer thinks that the idea of building New Town in the U. S
A. will help to solve the present urban situation
B. will produce the same sorts of results as does in Europe
C. will by no means alleviate the urban problems
D. will prevent the present urban situation from getting worse
22. Which of the following is not a side effect caused by building new towns?
A. Industry and commerce will move away from metropolitan area.
B. The present cities' tax income will be reduced because high income citizens
will move to new towns.
C. Low-income families will have better housing conditions.
D. The remaining citizens in the present cities will be faced with heavier tax
23. According to the writer, the advocators of New Towns in the U.S.
A. mainly have profit in mind
B. attach importance to social needs
C. hope to relieve pressures on existing cities
D. intend to follow the European example
24. The success of the New Town approach lies in the fact that
A. penalties will be given to those who are only interested in economic gain
B. a policy with clear objectives will be developed
C. promoters of New Towns will be encouraged
D. governmental innovations and financial factors will be thoroughly considered
25. The writer's attitude toward the present idea of building New Towns is __
A. objective B. indifferent
C. enthusiastic D. critical
American consumers like convenience very much. During the last 50 years, there has been a dramatic increase in such labor-saving devices as automatic washing machines, clothes dryers, dishwashers, food processors, microwave ovens, garbage disposals and power lawn mowers. Today, all of these and many more, are found in a typical suburban home. These labor-saving devices are designed to reduce the time spent on housework. However, the time that Americans save is quickly spent on other activities.
The American desire for convenience also created the concept of fast-food restaurants, found in every city and almost every small town in the United States, and now exported all over the world. These fast-food restaurants, such as McDonald's and KFC, serve sandwiches, salads, fried chicken, seafood, and other food to hurried customers in five minutes or less, often at a drive-up window. There are also a wide variety of restaurants that will deliver Chinese food, pizza, and other dishes to people's homes in about a half-hour. In many areas there are take-out taxis that will deliver food from the menus of 20 or 30 different restaurants for a small charge. For those who prefer to prepare their food at home, American grocery stores are full of convenience foods that are packaged and ready to cook or' even precooked.
Like microwave ovens and dishwashers, fast-food and take-out restaurants are convenient because they save the American consumer time that would otherwise be spent fixing meals or cleaning up. More than half of all the women in the United States are currently employed. This includes mothers with children under the age of 18. More than half the women with little children under the age of six hold jobs. Sixty-eight percent of the women who have school-age children are employed. Families with working mothers need all the time-savers they can get.
Thus, the conveniences that Americans desire reflect not so much a leisurely lifestyle as a busy lifestyle in which even minutes of time are too valuable to be wasted. Alexis de Tocqueville was one of the first to see in this a curious paradox ( 自相矛盾) in the American character. He observed that Americans were so busy working to acquire comforts and conveniences that they were unable to relax and to enjoy leisure time when they had it. Today, many Americans have what one medical doctor has called the hurry sickness.
26. The increase in labor-saving devices in the last 50 years reflected
A. a shortage of labor force in America
B. people's need to reduce the time spent on housework
C. Americans' interest in doing housework
D. the quick change of American family life
27. Americans like fast food and take-out restaurants because
A. they are cheap
B. they offer nutritious and tasty food
C. they provide superior service
D. they are convenient
28. It is implied in the passage that
A. fast food is not as nutritious as home-cooked food
B. fast food restaurants are more popular than take-out restaurants in the U.S.
C. most of the cooking at home is done by women
D. more men than women prefer eating convenient food
29. The conveniences that Americans desire reflect
A. a leisurely lifestyle
C. a wasteful habit
B. a busy lifestyle
D. a lazy character
30. The curious paradox in the American character (Last Para. ) means that
A. Americans were so busy working to acquire comforts and conveniences that
they were unable to relax and to enjoy leisure time when they had it
B. Americans love comforts and conveniences very much, yet they don't know
how to get them
C. Americans value time very much, yet they are too wasteful of material things
D. Americans know it's unhealthy to eat fast food, but they just can't resist it
Americans don't live in the United States any more. They live in a global village. Or so they are constantly being told. And it certainly is true that it's become remarkably easy to buy parts for a Japanese car in Idaho or find tiramisu on the menu in Nebraska or e-mail a colleague in Germany from a desk in Ohio.
So with this new sense of connection to other cultures, it must follow that Americans are more open than ever to reading fiction from abroad, right? Wrong.
“Americans are very introverted at this point,” says Richard Seaver, co-publisher with his wife, Jeannette, of Arcade Publishing in New York. Literary translations “just don't have that mystique for us.” On the contrary, says Susan Harris, editor in chief of Northwestern University Press in Evanston, III., the most successful marketing strategy for a book in translation is often “to position it as a good story, with the foreignness leached out of it.”
This big shrug on the part of American readers toward fiction from abroad is a point of increasing frustration for foreign publishers, especially as the majority import US fiction by the truckload. And while the cultural imbalance may trouble them, the economics are vexatious as well. Acceptance in the US has become the ultimate guarantee of financial success for most literary ventures.
With increasing pressure to churn out bestsellers, fewer and fewer of the big publishing houses are interested in taking a chance on foreign fiction—an area where sales of 15,000 for a single volume are considered remarkable.
Some also blame fading interest in literary translations on the decline of the independent bookstore. The network of literary minded owners who were once willing to take a chance on a lesser-known foreign writer just isn't there any more, lament some publishers.
Not that literary translations were ever a large part of the US market. It's hard to get exact numbers for the sales of these volumes, but most experts agree they've never made up more than a few percentage points of the total book market. Some view the problem as a cultural gap. Literary translations are often “works of philosophical inquiry and intellectual rigor,” says Sybil Steinberg, a senior editor at Publishers Weekly. “There are not a lot of intellectual readers in America.” And yet, challenging English-language writers like Don DeLillo and Thomas Pynchon manage to attract a substantial US audience.
31. Which of the following is the topic of the passage?
A. Americans' inability to connect to the outside world.
B. The illiteracy in American population
C. America's cultural imperialism.
D. America's lack of interest for foreign literary works.
32. The word “tiramisu” (Para. 1) most probably means ______.
A. foreign food
B. a computer command
C. an expensive commodity
D. a most wanted job opportunity
33. To market a foreign fiction successfully, which of the following should be emphasized?
A. Good translation
B. Good story
C. Exotic flavor
D. Cheap price
34. The author implies that ______.
A. it's not true that there are few intellectual readers in America
B. works by Don DeLillo and Thomas Pynchon only appeal to Americans who are
C. works by Don DeLillo and Thomas Pynchon widen the cultural gap between
America and foreign countries
D. works by Don DeLillo and Thomas Pynchon outsell those by American writer
35. Why the author said American don't live in the United States any more?
A. Because they go abroad.
B. Because most of them are immigrants.
C. Because they do business all over the world.
D. Because they can buy goods and service from other countries.
Children live in a world in which science has tremendous importance. During their lifetimes, it will affect them more and more. In time, many of them will work at jobs that depend heavily on science — for example, concerning energy sources, pollution control, highway safety, wilderness conservation, and population growth. As taxpayers, they will pay for scientific research and exploration. And, as consumers, they will be bombarded(受到轰击)by advertising, much of which is said to be based on science.
Therefore, it is important that children, the citizens of the future, become functionally acquainted with science — with the process and spirit of science, as well as with its facts and principles. Fortunately, science has a natural appeal for youngsters. They can relate it to so many things that they encounter — flashlights, tools, echoes and rainbows.
Besides, science is an excellent medium for teaching far more than content. It can help pupils learn to think logically, to organize and analyze ideas. It can provide practice in communication skills and mathematics. In fact, there is no area of the curriculum to which science cannot contribute, whether it is geography, history, language arts, music, or art!
Above all, good science teaching leads to what might be called a “scientific attitude”. Those who possess it seek answers through observing, experimenting, and reasoning, rather than blindly accepting the pronouncements of others. They weigh evidence carefully and reach conclusions with caution. While respecting the opinions of others, they expect honesty, accuracy, and objectivity and are on guard against hasty judgments and sweeping generalizations. All children should be developing this approach to solving problems, but it cannot be expected to appear automatically with the mere acquisition of information. Continual practice, through guided participation, is needed.
36.One of the reasons why science is important for children is that many of them will .
A.work in scientific research institutions
B.work at jobs closely related to science
C.make the final decision in matters concerning science
D.be fund-raisers for scientific research and exploration
37.There is no doubt that children like learning science because .
A.science is linked with many of the things they meet
B.science is a very easy subject for them to learn
C.they encounter the facts and principles of science daily
D.they are familiar with the process and spirit of science
38. Pupils can learn logical thinking while_______.
A.practicing communication skills B.studying geography
C.taking art courses D.learning science
39. People with a scientific attitude__________.
A.are ready to accept the pronouncements of others
B.tend to reach conclusions with certainty
C.are aware that others are likely to make hasty judgments
D.seek truth through observation, experimentation and reasoning
40. In the passage, the writer seems to___________.
A.prove that science is a successful course in school
B.point out that science as a course is now poorly taught in school
C.suggest that science should be included in the school curriculum
D.predict that children who learn science will be good scientists
Part Three Translation
41. As a boy and then as an adult, I never lost my wonder at the personality that was Einstein. He was the only person I knew who had come to terms with himself and the world around him. He knew what he wanted and he wanted only this: to understand within his limits as a human being the nature of the universe and the logic and simplicity in its functioning. He knew there were answers beyond his intellectual reach. But this did not frustrate him. He was content to go as far as he could. In the 23 years of our friendship, I never saw him show jealousy, vanity, bitterness, anger, resentment, or personal ambition. He seemed immune to these emotions. He was beyond any pretension.
Part Four Writing
Directions: suppose you are Zhang Ying. Write a letter to Xiao Wang, a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during the week-long holiday. You should write about 100 words according to the suggestions given below:
1) show your welcome and put forward your advice about holiday
2) remind the friend of some remarkable points
For this part, you are allowed to write a composition. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:
1)Nowadays various TV PK shows have attracted many youngsters
2)Some youngsters even have given up their school learning to make their superstar dreams come true, which has drawn much attention from the public.
3)Your opinion and give the reason.